Recommendations for Screening and Assessment
Brigance: Early Preschool and Preschool Screen
The Brigance screen works as an academic/developmental screening tool to identify if further assessment/evaluation is needed with the child. 70 is a typical cut-off score, however, professional discretion is advised for those scoring near the cut off point. Meets IDEA requirements, and is widely used as a screening tool by quality preschool programs in the area. Use of this instrument as a screening tool is highly recommended.
IGDI: Individual Growth and Development Indicators
At this time, the focus is on language and early literacy skills. Not appropriate as a screening tool. Claim that cognitive abilities are assessed is based on language skills. Could be considered as a progress monitoring tool for certain populations of children.
DECA: Devereux Early Childhood Assessment
Good for a behavioral screen. Short, easy to complete. Parent and teacher components allow for comparison of concerns. Used widely by community agencies as part of progress monitoring. This includes interventions for parents/teachers for promoting social/emotional development. DECA-C (Clinical) is a very good tool for further assessment of behavioral/emotional issues. Both DECA instruments are recommended to be used for children with behavioral concerns.
ASQ: Ages and Stages Questionnaire
Screening tool based primarily on parent report. This can be helpful in establishing rapport with parents. Easy to score, validity and reliability can vary widely as parent report is not always accurate. It does have intervention strategies available. As a first step screening, use with caution.
Grant Wood AEA does not currently own, but is available for $165. Four months - 60 months. Again, parent report tool. May be an easy tool for social-emotional screening.
DP-II: Developmental Profile II
Norm referenced. Items not sufficiently defined for reliable interrater results. Parent report and observation. Some items on DP II place child at higher developmental age level, which can lead to false negatives and under identification of children for support services. Not recommended for widespread use. This tool is currently undergoing re-standardization.
DAS: Differential Ability Scales
Norm referenced. Standardized format is not recommended by NAEYC/NIEER. Grant Wood AEA is currently moving away from use of standardized intelligence measurements. Scored by observation/direct testing. Reliability/validity is acceptable. Not recommended for widespread use. Tool does not lead to direct interventions.
PBA: Functional Assessment Tool
Criterion referenced. This can be used to monitor progress or screen a child for further evaluation. Parent report rated along with direct assessment. Developmentally appropriate administration techniques. No reliability/validity information available. Ceiling at 4 years 8 months. Some age levels have small number of items. Recommended as in-depth screening/assessment tool. Can lead to educational interventions.
LAP: Learning Accomplishments Profile
Criterion referenced. High reliance receptive language skills for cognitive abilities score. Parent report and observation. Skill levels inflate child's abilities - at 54 months expectation is child counts 4 objects. Not recommended for use.
BASC 2: Behavior Assessment System Checklist
Ages 2-5. Parent/Teacher report-is used in question format with parents. Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive skills and Behavioral symptoms index. Reliability and validity acceptable. Computer scoring available at Grant Wood AEA. Useful for diagnosing specific social-emotional disorders.
Diagnostic assessment tool for ages 1 1/2 to 5. Parent and teacher/caregiver rating scale. Reliable and valid, with inter-parent reliability slightly lower. Lengthy, hard to score, but can be useful in differential diagnosis. Recommended for use when child presents with more extreme concerns.
Ages 3-5. Parent and teacher rating scale. Specifically looks at ADHD/ODD behaviors for diagnostic purposes. Used by a wide variety of medical and mental health professionals. Recommended for use with suspected ADHD/ODD.
DECA-C: Devereux Early Childhood Assessment-Clinical Form
Ages 2-5. Parent and Teacher rating scale. Offers raters comparisons and pre-post test comparisons. Protective factors and Behavioral concerns. Based on resiliency data. A companion piece to DECA, which is widely used in the area. Recommended when more in-depth information is needed on a specific child.
PKBS-2: Pre Kindergarten Behavior Scale-2
Ages 3-6. Social skills and Problem Behavior scales. Norm referenced. Reliability and validity are acceptable. Not recommended as a screening tool. Problem behavior scales appear slightly more reliable. Tool is recommended for monitoring behavior changes, identifying children at risk for social/behavioral problems.
Ages 0-18. Parent and Teacher questionnaires. Parent report. Scales include: Communication; Daily living skills; Socialization; Motor and Adaptive Behavior Composite. Useful in MR diagnoses. Does provide age equivalency score, percentile rankings, and standard scores. Limited use is recommended.
Vineland Social-Emotional Early Childhood Scale
Scales include: Interpersonal Relationships, Play and Leisure, and Coping Skills. Item validity is questionable. Not recommended for widespread use.
There are a variety of other tools available within the agency and the community setting. We are unable to explore all instruments in depth, but have made the noted recommendations on these instruments after reviewing the information and research available at this time.